The wall boundary condition is a closed boundary and is applied at any cell face between wet and dry cells. Any unassigned boundary cell at the edge of the model domain is assumed to be closed and is assigned a wall boundary. A zero normal flux to the boundary is applied at closed boundaries. Two boundary conditions are available for the tangential flow:
- Free-slip: no tangential shear stress (wall friction)
- Partial-slip: tangential shear stress (wall friction) calculated based on the log law.
Assuming a log law for a rough wall, the partial-slip tangential shear stress is given by
where is the magnitude of the wall parallel current velocity, and is the wall friction coefficient equal to
Here, is the roughness length of the wall and is assumed to be equal to that of the bed . The distance from the wall to the cell center is .
The flux boundary condition is typically applied to the upstream end of a river or stream and specified as either a constant or time series of total water volume flux (Q). In a 2DH model, the total volume flux needs to be distributed across the boundary in order to estimate the depth-averaged velocities. This is done using a conveyance approach in which the current velocity is assumed to be related to the local flow depth (h) and Manning’s (n) as . Here, r is an empirical conveyance coefficient equal to approximately 2/3 for uniform flow. The smaller the r value the more uniform the current velocities are across the flux boundary. The water volume flux at each boundary cell (i) is calculated as
- i = subscript indicating a boundary cell
- = volume discharge at boundary cell i per unit width [m2/s]
- = unit vector for inflow direction =
- = inflow direction measured clockwise from North [deg]
- = boundary face unit vector (positive outward)
- Q = specified total volume flux across the boundary [m3/s]
- n = Manning’s coefficient [s/m1/3]
- r = empirical constant equal to approximately 2/3
- = cell width in the transverse direction normal to flow [m]
- = ramp function [-] (described in Chapter 3).
The total volume flux is positive into the computational domain. Since it is not always possible to orient all flux boundaries to be normal to the inflow direction, the option is given to specify an inflow direction . The angle is specified in degrees clockwise from true North. If the angle is not specified, then the inflow angle is assumed to be normal to the boundary. The total volume flux is conserved independently of the inflow direction.
Water Level Boundary
The general formula for the boundary water surface elevation is given by
- = boundary water surface elevation [m]
- = specified external boundary water surface elevation [m]
- = water surface elevation offset [m]
- = initial boundary water surface elevation [m]
- = correction to the boundary water surface elevation based on the wind and wave forcing [m]
- = water surface elevation component derived from user specified gradients [m]
- = ramp function [-] (described in Chapter 3).
The external water surface elevation may be specified as a time series, both spatially constant and varying or calculated from tidal/harmonic constituents. When a time series is specified, the values are interpolated using piecewise Lagrangian polynomials. By default, second order interpolation is used but can be changed by the user. If tidal constituents are specified, then is calculated as
- i = subscript indicating a tidal constituent
- = mean amplitude [m]
- = node (nodal) factor [-]
- = frequency [deg/hr]
- t = elapsed time from midnight of the starting year [hrs]
- = equilibrium phase [deg]
- = phase lag [deg].
The mean amplitude and phase may be specified by the user or interpolated from a tidal constituent database. The nodal factor is a time-varying correc-tion to the mean amplitude. The equilibrium phase has a uniform com-ponent and a relatively smaller periodic component. The zero-superscript of indicates that the constituent phase is at time zero. Table 1 provides a list of tidal constituents currently supported in CMS. More information on US tidal constituent values can be obtained from the US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) (http://tidesonline.nos.noaa.gov) and National Ocean Service (NOS) (http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov).
If a harmonic boundary condition is applied, then the node factors are set to one and the equilibrium arguments are set to zero. The harmonic boundary condition is provided as an option for simulating idealized or hypothetical conditions.
The water surface elevation offset is assumed spatially and temporally constant and may be used to correct the boundary water surface elevation for vertical datums and sea level rise. The component is intended to represent regional gradients in the water surface elevation, is assumed to be constant in time, and is only applicable when is spatially constant. When applying a water level boundary condition to the nearshore, local flow reversals and boundary problems may result if the wave- and wind-induced setup is not included. This problem is avoided by adding a correction to the local water level to account for the wind and wave setup as
where is the boundary total water depth, and are the wind, wave, and bottom stresses in the boundary direction (x). The wave forcing term is equal to
The correction is only applicable when is spatially constant as in the case of a single water surface elevation time series.
In the implicit flow solver, a cross-shore boundary condition is applied in the nearshore by solving the 1D cross-shore momentum equation including wave and wind forcing (Wu et al. 2010). Along a cross-shore boundary, it is assumed that a well-developed longshore current exists (quasi-steady conditions with longshore gradients in advection, diffusion, and water levels equal to zero). These assumptions are valid for relatively long coasts with shore-parallel contours and simplify the alongshore (y-direction) momentum equation to
where are the surface, wave, and bottom stresses in the longshore direction, respectively. Equation (8) is solved iteratively to determine the longshore current velocity. The cross-shore (x) component of the velocity is assigned a zero-gradient boundary condition. The longshore current velocity is applied when the flow is directed inwards. When the flow is directed outwards, a zero-gradient boundary condition is applied to the longshore current velocity.
The water level due to waves and wind at the cross-shore boundary can be determined by assuming a zero alongshore gradient of flow velocity and negligible cross-shore current velocity. For this case, the cross-shore momentum equation reduces to
where are the surface, wave, and bottom stresses in the cross-shore direction. The water level boundary condition is applied for the case when the flow is directed outwards. When the flow is directed inwards, a zero-gradient boundary condition is applied to the water level.
The water level predictions are based on a harmonic equation with several arguments
where is the constituent mean amplitude, is a factor that reduces the mean amplitude and varies in time, are the constituents equilibrium phase and is the constituent phase lag or epoch. Table 1 shows a list of the currently supported tidal constituents in CMS.
The water flux is specified as m^3/sec per cell along the cell string. This value is multiplied by the number of cells in the cell string to obtain the total flux. The total flux is then redistributed along the boundary according to
Along a cross-shore boundary, it is assumed that a well-developed longshore current exists. Thus, the y (alongshore) momentum equation can be reduced as follows
The water level setup due to waves and winds at the cross-shore boundary can be determined by assuming a zero alongshore gradient of water level, or using the following equation reduced from the x (cross-shore) momentum equation
|Constituent mean amplitude|
|Constituent nodal factor|
|Constituent equilibrium argument|
|Constituent equilibrium argument|
|Constituent phase or epoch|
- Wu, W., A. Sánchez, and M. Zhang. 2010. An implicit 2-D depth-averaged finite-volume model of flow and sediment transport in coastal waters. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering, No. 32. Paper Number: Sediment 23. Shanghai, China.