# Lund-CIRP

Camenen and Larson (2005, 2007, and 2008) developed a general sediment transport formula for bed and suspended load under combined waves and currents. These are refered to as the Lund-CIRP transport formulas. The general transport formulas can be used for both symmetric and asymmetric waves but for simplicity the waves are assumed to be symmetric in CMS. The bed load transport rate including the stirring effect of waves is given by $\frac{q_{b}}{\sqrt{(s-1) g d_{50}^3}} = a_c \sqrt{\theta_c} \theta_{cw,m}\exp{ \biggl ( -b_c \frac{\theta_{cr}}{\theta_{cw}}} \biggr )$ (1)

where $q_{b}$ is in m^2/s, $d_{50}$ is the median grain size, $s$ is the sediment specific gravity or relative density, $g$ is gravitational constant, $\theta_{cw,m}$ and $\theta_{cw}$ are the mean and maximum Shields parameters due to waves and currents respectively, $\theta_{c}$, $\theta_{cr}$ is the critical Shields parameter due to currents, $a_c$ and $b_c$ are empirical coefficients.

The current-related suspended load transport with wave stirring is given by $\frac{q_s}{\sqrt{ (s-1) g d_{50}^3 }} = U c_R \frac{\varepsilon}{\omega_s} \biggl[ 1 - \exp{ \biggl( - \frac{w_s h}{\varepsilon}} \biggr) \biggr]$ (2)

where $U$ is the depth-averaged current velocity, $h$ is the total water depth, $\omega_s$ is the sediment fall velocity, $\varepsilon$ is the sediment diffusivity, and $c_R$ is the reference bed concentration. The reference bed concentration is calculated from $c_R = A_{cR} \exp{ \biggl( - 4.5 \frac{\theta_{cr}}{\theta_{cw}}} \biggr)$ (3)

where the coefficient $A_{cR}$ is given by $A_{cR} = 3.5 \times 10^3 \exp{ \bigl( - 0.3 D_{*} } \bigr)$ (4)

where $\nu$ the kinematic viscosity of water, and $D_{*}$the dimensionless grain size $D_{*} = d_{50} \biggl[ \frac{(s-1) g}{ \nu} \biggr]$ (5)

The sediment fall velocity is calculated using the formula by Soulsby (1997) $\omega_s = \frac{\nu}{d} \bigg[ \big( 10.36^2 + 1.049 D_{*}^3 \big)^{1/2} -10.36 \bigg]$ (6)

The sediment mixing coefficient is calculated as $\epsilon = h \biggl( \frac{k_b^3 D_b + k_c^3 D_c + k_w^3 D_w}{\rho} \biggr)^{1/3}$ (7)

where $k_b, k_c, and k_w$ are coefficients, $D_b$ is the wave breaking dissipation, and $D_c$ and $D_w$ are the bottom friction dissipation due to currents and waves respectively. For more details see Camenen and Larson (2008).

# van Rijn

The van Rijn (1984ab) transport equations are used with the recalibrated coefficients of van Rijn (2007ab) are given by $q_b = 0.015 \rho_s U h \biggl( \frac{U_e - U_{cr} }{ \sqrt{(s-1) g d_{50}} } \biggr)^{1.5} \biggl( \frac{d_{50}}{h} \biggr)^{1.2}$ (8) $q_s = 0.012 \rho_s U d_{50} \biggl( \frac{U_e - U_{cr} }{ \sqrt{(s-1) g d_{50}}} \biggr)^{2.4} D_{*}^{-0.6}$ (9)

where $U_{cr}$ is the critical depth-averaged velocity for initiation of motion, $U_e$ is the effective depth averaged velocity calculated as $U_e = U + 0.4 U_w$ in which $U_w$ is the peak orbital velocity based on the significant wave height

The critical velocity is estimated as $U_{cr} = \beta U_{crc} + (1-\beta) U_{crw}$ (10)

where $U_{crc}$ and $U_{crw}$ are the critical velocity for currents and waves respectively. As in van Rijn (2007), the critical velocity for currents and waves are calculated based on Komar and Miller (1975): $U_{crc} = \begin{cases} 0.19 (d_{50})^{0.1} \log{_{10} \big( \frac{4h}{d_{90}} \big) }, & \text{for } 0.1 \le d_{50} \le 0.5 mm \\ 8.5 (d_{50})^{0.6} \log{_{10} \big( \frac{4h}{d_{90}} \big) }, & \text{for } 0.5 \le d_{50} \le 2.0 mm \end{cases}$ (11) $U_{crw} = \begin{cases} 0.24 [(s-1)g]^{0.66} (d_{50})^{0.33} T_p^{0.33} , & \text{for } 0.1 \le d_{50} \le 0.5 mm \\ 0.95 [(s-1)g]^{0.57} (d_{50})^{0.43} T_p^{0.14}, & \text{for } 0.5 \le d_{50} \le 2.0 mm \end{cases}$ (12)

According to van Rijn (2007) bed load transport formula predicts transport rates with a factor of 2 for velocities higher than 0.6 m/s, but underpredicts transports by a factor of 2-3 for velocities close to initiation of motion.

# Watanabe

The equilibrium total load sediment transport rate of Watanabe (1987) is given by $q_{t} = A_w \biggl[ \frac{(\tau_{b,max} - \tau_{cr}) U }{\rho g } \biggr]$ (13)

where $\tau_{b,max}$ is the maximum shear stress, $\tau_{cr}$ is the critical shear stress of incipient motion, and $A$ is an empirical coefficient typically ranging from 0.1 to 2.

The critical shear stress is determined using $\tau_{cr} = (\rho_s - \rho) g d \phi_{cr}$ (14)

In the case of currents only the bed shear stress is determined as $\tau_{c} = \frac{1}{8}\rho g f_c U_c^2$ where $f_c$ is the current friction factor. The friction factor is calculated as $f_c = 0.24log^{-2}(12h/k_{sd})$ where $k_{sd}$ is the Nikuradse equivalent sand roughness obtained from $k_{sd} = 2.5d_{50}$.

If waves are present, the maximum bed shear stress $\tau_{b,max}$ is calculated based on Soulsby (1997) $\tau_{max} = \sqrt{(\tau_m + \tau_w \cos{\phi})^2 + (\tau_w \sin{\phi})^2 }$ (15)

where $\tau_m$ is the mean shear stress by waves and current over a wave cycle, math> \tau_w [/itex] is the mean wave bed shear stress, and $\phi$ is the angle between the waves and the current. The mean wave and current bed shear stress is $\tau_{m} = \tau_c \biggl[ 1 + 1.2 \biggl( \frac{\tau_w}{\tau_c + \tau_c} \biggr)^{3.2} \biggr]$ (16)

The wave bed shear stress is given by $\tau_{w} = \frac{1}{2}\rho g f_w U_w^2$ where $f_w$ is the wave friction factor, and $U_w$ is the wave orbital velocity amplitude based on the significant wave height.

The wave friction factor is calculated as (Nielsen 1992) $f_w = \exp{5.5R^{-0.2}-6.3}$ where $R$ is the relative roughness defined as $R = A_w/k_{sd}$ and $A_w$ is semi-orbital excursion $A_w = U_w T / (2 \pi)$.

# Soulsby-van Rijn

Soulsby (1997) proposed the following equation for the total load sediment transport rate under currents and waves $q_t = A_s U \biggl[ \biggl( U^2 + 0.018 \frac{U_{rms}^2}{C_d} \biggr)^{0.5} - U_{cr} \biggr]^{2.4}$ (20)

where $U_{rms}$ is the root-mean-squared wave orbital velocity, and $C_d$ is the drag coefficient due to currents alone and the coefficient $A_{s} = A_{sb} + A_{ss}$. The coefficients $A_{sb}$ and $A_{ss}$ are related to the bed and suspended transport loads respectively and are given by $A_{sb} = \frac{ 0.005 h (d_{50}/h)^{1.2} }{ [(s-1)g d_{50} ]^{1.2} }$ (21) $A_{s} = \frac{ 0.012 d_{50} D_{*}^{-0.6} }{ [(s-1)g d_{50} ]^{1.2} }$ (22)

The current drag coefficient is calcualted as $C_d = \biggl[ \frac{0.4}{\ln{(h/z_0)}-1 } \biggr]^2$ (23)

with a constant bed roughness length $z_0$ set to 0.006 m.

Symbol Description Units $q_{bc}$ Bed load transport rate m3/s $s$ Relative density - $\theta_{c}$ Shields parameter due to currents - $\theta_{cw}$ Shields parameter due to waves and currents - $\theta_{cw}$ Critical shields parameter - $a_c$ Empirical coefficient - $b_c$ Empirical coefficient - $U_c$ Current magnitude m/s